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Danish rule forbade Europeans to marry “real” Greenlander women

Danish norm difficulted mestization in Greenland.

Greenland is a territory of the Kingdom of Denmark in America. To manage it, the European country created a company, Den Kongelige Grønlandske Handel – KGH (Royal Greenland Trade), which had exclusive rights to trade with the island from 1776 to 1950. On April 19, 1782, during the reign of Christian VII, KGH published an Instruction regulating local trade and race relations.

The Instrux hvorefter kiøbmændene eller de som enten bestyre handelen eller forestaae Hvalfanger-Anlæggene i Grønland, i Særdeleshed, saavelsom og alle de der staae i handelens Tieneste i almindelighed, sig for fremtiden have at rette og forholde  (‘Instruction that traders or those who control trade or whaling facilities in Greenland in particular, as well as all those in the service of trade in general, must in the future correct and report’, in free translation) included, among others norms, the prohibition of marriages of European men and women with “real” Greenlander, and of mixed (Blanding) men with European women, only allowing, after requesting authorization from an inspector, marriages between European men and mestizo women.

The instruction also prescribed that mixed children would be educated in the customs of non-mestizo natives and prepared for professional activities.

Second Message

Wedding

§ 1.

When the Merchant’s servers, upon request, are allowed to marry European ladies, they must deposit in advance in the widow’s box that the widow, after her husband’s death, can enjoy 60 Rdlr annually. Pension; however, in particular, it will be seen that the deposit is released in the usual manner.

§ 2.

Marriage to real Greenlanders is not allowed; but, when the marriage with wife [daughter] of mixed marriage wife, upon request to the Inspector, is authorized, the server must, before marriage, deposit a sum in the widow’s box for her body, so that after his death she at least enjoy 40 Rdlr. of annual pension. And this marriage does not connect you to the territory.

§ 3.

Servers, married or single, who are exposed to Handelens Tieneste are not allowed to reside in the country; they must go home on the first ship.

§ 4.

As far as executors, carpenters and other settlers are concerned, they cannot marry European prostitutes or real Greenlanders; but when the Inspector, upon request of marriage to a wife of mixed marriages, discovers that the applicant has good and challenging qualities, as well as the ability to give attention to the family, the marriage may well be granted, however, in terms of that a certain amount can be deposited in the widow’s box, that the widow of the executioner or the carpenter can enjoy 25 Rdlr. of pension, and 20 Rdlr of workers. If they are unable to pay the full amount of the Recognition immediately, they must, for the remainder, do so in accordance with the Fundatsen’s Prescribed Donation to the Widow’s Fund; but for Capital and Interest there is probably a guarantee that the Executive Board will be able to sign their bonds for payment after a specified period.

For this purpose, an additional portion of your remuneration, or more, when challenged, will be retained annually until the security is fully paid. So full payment must be made within four years from the date of issue of the security. With regard to passersby and the groom’s need for freedom, they need to support themselves.

§ 5.

Men [who descend] from mixed marriage must marry both the real Greenlanders and the mestizo [women], and in the first case remain in the country. But they are at the service of commerce, as traders, assistants or other quality, where they enjoy 50 Rdlr. of fixed salary, they must first inform the impending marriage to the Inspector and make this deposit in the Widows’ Fund, as provided in the next paragraph dedicated to the executioner and the carpenter.

§ 6.

All those who are employed in the trade and are already married, but have not yet been employed, or who would soon deposit a cheap sum, and according to the appropriate amount established by the inspector for the widow’s box for their wives, must annually maintain some benefit of their enjoyed beneficiaries, so that, after death, their children and widows would not become a burden on trade for lack of necessary goods.

And now there is a rule to follow, the trader must be retained annually on the 14th Rdlr, the assistant on the 10th Rdlr, the carpenter or butcher 8 Rdlr, and the cook, boatman or simple settler. 6 Rigsdaler.

From the amount the retention accumulated before the husband’s death, interest is paid for the benefit of the widow and surviving children; but capital falls after his death in a division between his children or if there is no one, nor is there a legally established livelihood, as among his other heirs.

If the retained capital reported otherwise is so small that interest rates, for the purposes mentioned above, are not sufficient, then the capital itself must be used as much as is sufficient.

§ 7.

In order that mixed-marriage children do not make themselves and the country a burden, they generally must be trained to negotiate with Greenland and maintain with the National Ombudsman.

Whatever the boys’ children in particular, they must be considered good Greenlanders and, therefore, get used to kayaking in a timely manner; or be trained in the country for the professions of merchants and carpenters, or taken to professional work, or listed for whaling and other fisheries. But, for everything, it should be noted that they do not waste time uselessly, nor are they spoiled in the kitchens and private services of Europeans, as this only feeds laziness and makes them unfit to acquire their bread, both in European and Greenlandic ways. .

Thus, when parents properly list and raise their children, commerce will support their efforts and, in the best way, help their children.

Original text:

Anden Post

Om Giftermaal.

§. 1.

Naar Handelens Betiente, efter indgiven Ansøgning, skulle blive tilladt at indtræde i Ægteskab med Europæiske Fruentimmer, have de forud at indsætte saa meget i Enke-Kassen, at Enken efter Mandens Død aarlig kan nyde 60 Rdlr. Pension; Dog vil man isaa Fald see Indskudet paa sædvanlig Maade lettet.

§. 2.

Ægteskab med virkelige Grønlænderinder tillades ikke; men naar Giftermaal med Fruentimmer af blandet Ægteskab, efter derom given Ansøgning til Inspecteuren, indvilges, haver Betienten inden Brylluppet, at indskyde saadan Sum i Enke-Kassen for sin Kiereste, at hun efter hans Død, i det mindste kan nyde 40 Rdlr. aarlig Pension. Og binder dette Giftermaal ham ikke til Landet.

§. 3.

Betientere, gifte eller ugifte, som udsættes af Handelens Tieneste, tilstædes ikke derefter at boe i Landet; men gaae hiem med første Skib.

§. 4.

Hvad Bødker, Tømmermand og andre Kolonister angaaer, da tillades dem ikke at indtræde i Ægteskab med Europæiske Fruentimmer eller virkelige Grønlænderinder; men naar Inspecteuren, efter indgiven Ansøgning om Giftermaal med Fruentimmer af blandet Ægteskab, finder at Supplicanten besidder de udfordrende gode Egenskaber, samt evne til at underholde en Familie, kan Ægteskabet vel bevilges, dog paa Vilkaar, at der indsættes i Enke-Kassen saadan Sum, at Bødkerens eller Tømmermandens Enke kan efter Mandens Død nyde 25 Rdlr. Pension, og Arbeidskarlens 20 Rdlr. Skulle de ikke strax kunne udbetale den fulde Sum med Recognition, da maae de vel for det resterende efter Fundatzens Forskrivt give Obligation til Enke-Kassen; men derhos for Kapital og Renter stille saa antagelig Caution, at Directionen kan paategne deres Obligation til udbetaling efter en bestemt Tid.

Til hvilken Ende en Fierde Deel af deres Gage, eller mere, ligesom det udfordres, aarlig bliver tilbageholdet indtil Obligationen ganske er udbetalt. Hvilken fulde Betaling maae være erlagt inden fire Aar fra den Tid af, da Obligationen blev udstædt. Hvad de behøvende Frieheds Passer og Forlovere angaaer, da maae de selv sørge for at forskaffe sig samme.

§. 5.
Mandspersoner af blandet Ægteskab maae gifte sig saavel med Virkelige Grønlænderinder, som med Blandinger, og forblive i det første Tilfælde bestandig i Landet. Men staae de i Handelens Tieneste, som Kiøbmænd, Assistenter, eller anden Qvalite, hvor de nyde 50 Rdlr. fast Gage, bør de først melde det intenderende Giftermaal for Inspecteuren, og giøre saadant Indskud i Enke-Kassen, som i forestaaende Paragraf for Bødker og Tømmermand er fastsat.

§. 6.

Alle som staae i Handelens Tieneste og allerede ere gifte, men endnu ikke have indsat, eller strax ville indsette en billig, og efter Indspecteurens Skiønsomhed passelig Sum i Enke-Kassen for deres Hustruer, bør aarlig beholde noget tilgode af deres nydende Gage, paa det, naar de ved Døden afgaae, deres efterladte Enke og Børn da ei af Mangel paa nødtørftig Underholdning skulle blive Handelen til Byrde.

Og at man nu heri kan have en Regel at gaae efter, bør der for saadan Kiøbmand aarlig tilbageholdes 14 Rdlr., for en Assistent 10 Rdlr., for en Tømmermand eller Bødker 8 Rdlr., og for en Kok, Baadsmand, eller simpel Kolonist 6 Rigsdaler.

Af den Sum, som det saaledes tilbageholdte er opløben til inden Mandens Død, betales Renterne til den efterladte Enkes og Børns Underholdning; men Kapitalen falder efter hendes Død til Deling imellem deres Børn eller om ingen er, og der ikke heller i levende Live paa lovlig Maade er disponeret derover, da imellem deres andre Arvinger.

Skulle ellers bemeldte tilbageholdte Kapital være saa liden, at Renterne, i ovenmeldte Hensigt, ikke vare nogenledes tilstrækkelige, maae der tages af selve Kapitalen, saalænge den kan rekke.

§. 7.

Paa det Børn af blandet Ægteskab ikke skal blive sig selv og Landet til Byrde, bør de i Almindelighed til Grønlands Handtering oplæres og med National-Proviant underholdes.

Hvad ellers Drengebørnene i Særdeleshed angaaer, da maae de enten anføres til at blive gode Grønlændere og derfor betimelig vænnes til Kajakken; eller oplæres i Landet til Bødker og Tømmermands Professioner, eller tages til Arbeide ved Handelen, eller anføres til Hval- og anden Fiskefangst. Men for alting maae man see derhen, at de ikke unyttig drive Tiden bort, eller forvænnes i Europæernes Kiøkkener og private Tieneste, da saadant allene føder Dovenskab, og giør dem uskikkede til, siden at erhverve sit Brød, enten paa europæisk eller grønlandsk Maade.

Naar Fædrene saaledes tilbørlig anføre og opdrage deres Børn, vil Handelen understøtte deres Bestræbelser, og paa beste Maade forhielpe Børnene.

In contrast to Danish policy in Greenland, King D. Joseph I of Portugal, in 1775, encouraged the marriages of both Portuguese men and Portuguese women with Amerindians and policies for integrating their children into colonial society in Brazil.

The eastern part of Greenland belonged to Portugal in the division made with Spain in the Treaty of Tordesillas, of 1494. Portugal sent, in 1500, the navigator Gaspar Corte Real to the island and in search of a route through the Northwest to Asia. The Portuguese, however, did not colonize the territory and in the 18th century the Danes claimed it.

With information from Darmarks Historien.

Posted in Português.


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